Born just in the beginning of 20 th century – 5 April 1900 in Haag, Austria, he grew up under the influence of the avant-garde movement and the fast changing environment and technologically revolutionary years. Bayer (among other famous graphic artists like El Lissitsky, Aleksander Rodchenko, Laszlo Maholy-Nagy) believed in the power that design has in influencing society. The designers were “putting the chaos of life into rational forms” (Armstrong, 2009, p.13) and slowly, but surely, were changing the world. Finding inspiration in the functionality and efficiency of the machines, Bayer worked in the spirit of order and clarity. At 20, he entered the famous German school of design – the Bauhaus, to become one of the most important and influential artists, whose style, with time, has turned into a symbol of the Bauhaus itself – reflecting all of the school’s believes, accomplishments and innovations. And it is there, where he found not only his talent and passion for typography, but also one for photography. Influenced by Kandinski and Maholy-Nagy, Bayer also developed a strong interest in painting and photo manipulation.
Universal, conforming strictly to the principles of The New Typography features letterforms reduced to their bare essentials. Bayer removed capitals letters and serifs. Within Universal Bayer removed the need for upper and lower cases, resulting in the one character set, each letter form from only straight lines and circles. Bayer argued that as the spoken word does not require two cases, why should the written one. Unlike Albers’ ‘stencil’, ‘universal’ does not conform to be modular.